Due to its character as a working class neighbourhood and its geographical separation from the city proper by two rivers Leine and Ihme Linden has to this day kept its character as a place with a difference.
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Stadtbezirk Linden-Limmer im Stadtteil Linden-Mitte, westlich der Innenstadt Hannovers. The city of Hanover forecasts a decline in the population of about 2. The age of the population is mixed: The population development in Linden-Mitte is constant; the demographic changes are not based on migration but on aging and mixing. Thus, in Linden-Mitte The average size of households in Linden-Mitte is 1.
In mid about By contrast the percentage of working foreign nationals was The unemployment rate is higher than the overall average for Hanover and lies at 9. At The townscape is characterised by coherent perimeter block development from the Wilhelminian period to the s. The juxtaposition of worker housing and industrial housing creates the original character of a working class neighbourhood in which industrial production played a key role until the s.
The high percentage of students and workers on the one hand and the dyed-in-the-wool Linden residents on the other still characterises today public and cultural life in the neighbourhood. The percentage of flats in old pre buildings in Linden-Mitte is very high at This fact underpins the urban character of the neighbourhood due to the high proportion of perimeter block constructions dating back to the Wilhelminian with a mixed-use urban development. In addition there is a wide range of educational opportunities, such as primary and higher level schools grammar and comprehensive that can be easily reached on foot.
Numerous cultural and gastronomic establishments in Linden-Mitte and small boutique-like specialist outlets round off the picture books, jewellery, fashion, health and beauty as well as furnishings. The neighbourhood thrives on contrasts and the interplay between new and old; themes such as luxury refurbishment versus affordable rents are the subjects of controversial discussion in civic committees.
The project area is well connected with roads. The public transport connections are excellent; bus and rapid transit rail link the project area with frequent services to the centre of Hanover and the outlying districts of Ahlem and Empelde. Bikes are essential as a popular and viable alternative mode of transport thanks to a well-developed system of cycle routes and the relatively short distances within the district.
The proximity to public green spaces along the river Ihme means easy access to local Abb. Das Projektgebiet ist verkehrstechnisch gut angebunden. Als alternatives Fortbewegungsmittel ist das Fahrrad unentbehrlich, die ausgebauten Fahrradwege und relativ nahen Entfernungen im Stadtgebiet werden von vielen Bewohner und Bewohnerinnen genutzt. Club life is well developed in Linden-Mitte.
Civil society involvement in Linden is above average. Citizens initiatives and commissions participate energetically in political and local decisions - expressed by numerous neighbourhood newspapers and internet forums. Flat ownership in Linden-Mitte is heterogeneous: for instance there are owners of single properties or of groups of housing units with flats; there are also housing cooperatives and the former local housing corporation, which owns properties in the project area.
There are new buildings and old buildings in the project area. This new housing project is mainly terraced single family housing units and is consciously contrasted with the Wilhelminian period perimeter block housing style. Incomplete rehabilitation measures, caused by the withdrawal of the investors in , give the structure the appearance of a half-finished ruin. The PluS project will, among other objectives, study whether or how far this situation impacts on the sense of security of the residents within and outside the complex.
Formal and informal bases for implementing crime prevention schemes in urban development The German Building Code BBauG is the legal basis for all urban decisions and is the framework for the input by the police. Already in the model project in it was found that the BBauG in its current version is adequate as the legal basis both for embedding the crime prevention aspects as well as involving the police as an institution in the planning and implementation process in urban projects.
Im Projekt PluS soll u. In addition to this general formulation, clearly perpetrator-oriented prevention approaches in particular in the area of primary prevention can be found with respect to the legal duties of urban land-use planning.
For instance, Article 1 6 3 BBauG points out that the social and cultural needs of the population must be regarded as a crucial criterion for urban land-use planning. This is understood to include living conditions that do not put individuals in potentially delinquency generating situations, such as drug addiction, isolation, material marginality, solitude and miserable psychological conditions -- because these count among the social as well as the individual basic needs Pfeiffer In the same section the special needs in particular of families, young people, old people and disabled people, the different impacts on men and women as well as the needs of the educational system and of sport, leisure and recreation are addressed Article1 6 3 BauGB.
This section considers perpetrator as well as victim oriented prevention. On the basis of the model project Pfeiffer makes detailed reference to the ways in which police can be involved: The legal basis for involving the police in the procedure to draw up an urban land-use plan is given by Article 4 BBauG in conjunction with Article 3 1 1 BBauG. In accordance with Article 4 1 1 BBauG the authorities and other parties mandated to represent public interests whose scope is affected by the plan shall be informed in good time in accordance with Article 3 1 1 1 BBauG about the foreseeable impacts of the plan, the general aims and purposes of the plan, and the significantly different solutions that come into question for the re-design or development of an area.
SOG to prevent crimes the police are the obvious addressee of this information and indeed as a matter of principle for all urban land-use plan projects, because the limitations in accordance with Article 3 1 2 BBauG are not applicable for involvement in line with Article 4 BBauG. Pfeiffer 25 The above formal footing makes it clear that security aspects in urban development must be included as cross cutting theme in all urban planning projects.
The effective implementation occurs if the projects take the gender-specific needs of the population in mind from the outset. So weist 1 Abs. Die Polizei ist damit aufgrund ihres gesetzlichen Auftrages 1 Abs. Formal and informal basis Networks and cooperation projects Basically networks and cooperation between interdisciplinary groups are ideally suited as informal cornerstones for considering crime preventive strategies in urban development.
That is why numerous networks for crime prevention in urban development exist in Lower Saxony and Germany. Prevention Councils at state and local community levels. Security partnerships in urban development in Lower Saxony; development of Safe Living in Lower Saxony certification scheme; cooperation agreements between police and local authorities. Qualification of the police and specialist fields On the basis of the model project Crime Prevention in Urban Development between and the qualification of police officers in legal, technical and formal principles of urban planning has been an important precondition for involvement in the planning processes.
Equally, the command of the basic criminological know-how of the specialist urban and development planners, architects and open space as well as traffic and communications planners is also an important precondition for planning public and private spaces. Taking the individual criteria and measures into proper consideration in good time while bearing gender-specific aspects 17 in mind is the best approach to avoiding mistakes already in the run-up.
Research projects Another element of the informal principles is the access to research funds and creation of research projects. These can contribute to promoting best practices and further developing crime prevention strategies and measures. The area has an estimated 5, residents and 4, dwellings. Residential living is intermingled with other land uses, as mixed-use developments are an urban planning trend.
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The Manchester A neighbourhood has 69, m 2 dedicated to domestic use and ,m 2 zoned for commercial non-domestic. Transport connections in the project area are excellent. The Solution Centre focuses on the practical application of design-led crime prevention to problems and issues facing our society today, covering: 1. High footfall in the early hours of the morning, the concentration of drunk young people outside bars and lack of transport out of the city centre results in crime, anti-social behaviour and road accidents Roberts, , p. Water Incidents - There have been 34 water incidents in seven years September and July along the Rochdale Canal - which have resulted in death by drowning.
Robbery and young people - Certain areas of Manchester are used by young people to meet and hang out. Greenspace is the third largest use of land see Figure 9; Office for National Statistics, Domestic properties are the fourth largest use of land in the area.
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Land use of Manchester neighbourhood A. Figure 7. Manchester city centre project area outlined in yellow. Dimensions of building area Census data was analysed by Super Output Areas. Manchester A comprises less than half of Manchester city centre. The boundaries of which are shown in Figure 8. The total area of all land types in Manchester A is 1,,m 2 Office for National Statistics, b. Ihre Grenzen sind in der Abb. Office for National Statistics, b.
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Residential and commercial zones, transport connections According to the Office for National Statistics a , Manchester A -which includes our project area- has an estimated 5, residents and 4, dwellings. The Manchester A neighbourhood has 69, m 2 dedicated to domestic use and , m 2 zoned for commercial non-domestic use Office for National Statistics, b. A mainline railway station, Deansgate Rail Station, and a Metrolink tram stop are both within the project area. A free Manchester city centre shuttle bus, Metroshuttle 2, stops through the area on Whitworth Street West.
Wohngebiete sind mit anderen Nutzungen gemischt, da Mischnutzungen bei Bauprojekten im Trend der Stadtplanung liegen. Die Verkehrsanbindung im Projektgebiet ist hervorragend. Classification is based on occupation for all adults aged 16 to In terms of educational backgrounds of residents, the majority of residents in Manchester A are university educated.
The area does not include a large minority population. As Figure 10 shows, the largest immigrant population comes from Asia i. Middle East, Far East and the Indian sub-continent. The Vulnerable Localities Index used by Greater Manchester Police measures factors in the Census Output Area that have an impact on crime: burglary, criminal damage; income deprivation; educational attainment; and percentage of young people. The COA is situated in band 5 localities with the lowest tendency for crime and victims of crime , compared to Greater Manchester as a whole.
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Hinsichtlich ihres Bildungshintergrundes hat die Mehrzahl der Einwohner und Einwohnerinnen von Manchester A eine Hochschulausbildung. Wie in Abb.
Figure Birth country of residents in the A ward in Manchester city centre which includes the Manchester PLuS project area. Pedestrians, bikes and car traffic The data available on the use of the project area reveals heavy vehicle use and reasonable pedestrian usage. Data collected by Greater Manchester Transport Unit counted the number of vehicles, pedestrians and pedal cycles entering the city centre from specific survey points on a weekday between and Survey points within the PluS project area were identified.
More than 10, vehicles, pedestrians and pedal bikes enter the project area on a typical weekday Greater Manchester Transportation Unit, At the time of the Census, however, there appeared to be 1, residents in the neighbourhood A Office for National Statistics, c. The population distribution of this area in was skewed towards the younger ages See Figure The main age group are adults in their twenties.
Innerhalb des PluS-Projektgebietes wurden Datenerhebungspunkte festgelegt. Die Hauptgruppen sind junge Erwachsen in den Zwanzigern.
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Following the IRA bomb, twenty million pounds was given by the European Union to help rebuild the city centre. The UK government gave 43m to create a traffic-free area of pavement cafes, winter gardens and riverside walks Update Manchester, , p. The City Council said: We re not simply going to rebuild.
The City bid to host the Olympic Games in and , and the successful staging of the Commonwealth Games in have probably done more to raise the city s profile than any other single activity Kitchen, , p. In the mid s, Manchester City Council moved away from rigid zoning policies - which had created areas that were deserted at certain times of the day Heath, , p. Planning guidelines from onwards acknowledged the benefits of mixed use and identified distinctive areas of the city centre or quarters Manchester City Council, , p.
Deansgate Locks became popular a few years later and then The Printworks. The in areas move around as fashion changes. The night-time economy was an integral part of the Council s campaign to reinvent Manchester as a progressive European city cosmopolitan and culturally rich Manchester City Council, , p.